In Jodka v. City of Cleveland, et al., Case No. 99951, the Ohio 8th District Court of Appeals held that Cleveland's automated traffic camera system contained in Cleveland Codified Ordinance 413.031 is unconstitutional under Ohio Constitution Article IV, Section 1 because it usurps a judicial function. Specifically, Judge Kenneth Rocco, who wrote the opinion, stated that: "This court agrees ... that the power to adjudicate civil violations of moving traffic laws lies solely in municipal court" under O.R.C. sec. 1901.20. Although Jodka prevailed, he did not get his fine back from Cleveland's parking Violations Bureau.